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The Constitution established for the regulatory framework under which the Judiciary conducts its duties, based on the principle of ‘separation of powers’. The Judiciary enjoys independence and autonomy when issuing its rulings, in different areas of the law. According to the applicable legislations, the Judicial Council (the ‘Council’) presides over the judicial system in Jordan, and is head by the President of the Judicial Council, appointed pursuant to a Royal Decree. The Council exercises its powers to appoint civil judges and administrating all their affairs in accordance with the Judiciary’s Independence Law No. 29 of 2014.

Under the Constitution, there are different types of courts, including, without limitation, civil, religious and special courts, noting that administrative courts fall under the umbrella of civil courts. Civil courts have jurisdiction to rule on civil and criminal disputes, including disputes filed by and or against the government. Litigation in Jordan can be conducted before three different levels of courts.

Initially, there is the Magistrate Court and/or the Court of First Instance, considered the first level to litigate and/or to bring a dispute to. Rulings issued by the Magistrate Court and/or the Court of First Instance can be appealed to the Court of Appeal, noting that such rulings may be appealed to the Cassation Court, the highest court in the country. The Cassation Court rulings are considered final.

Recent amendments made to the Establishment of Civil Courts No. 30 of 2017, established specialized economic chambers within the Court of First Instance and Court of Appeal to into economic disputes. This amendment ensure that cases with economic and/or financial nature are allocated to specialized judges who enjoy experience in that specific field.